Migrating from Jena2 to Jena3

Apache Jena3 is a major version release for Jena - it is not binary compatible with Jena2. The migration consists of package renaming and database reloading.

Key Changes

Package Name Changes

Packages with a base name of com.hp.hpl.jena become org.apache.jena.

Global replacement of import com.hp.hpl.jena. with import org.apache.jena. will cover the majority of cases.

The Jena APIs remain unchanged expect for this renaming.

Vocabularies unchanged

Only java package names are being changed. Vocabularies are not affected.


Migration support is provided by mapping ja:loadClass names beginning com.hp.hpl.jena internally to org.apache.jena. A warning is logged.


This will also affect logging: logger names reflect the java class naming so loggers for com.hp.hpl.jena become org.apache.jena

RDF 1.1

Many of the changes and refinements for RDF 1.1 are already in Jena2. The parsers for Turtle-family languages already follow the RDF 1.1 grammars and output is compatible with RDF 1.1 as well as earlier output details.

RDF 1.1 changes for plain literals

In RDF 1.1, all literals have a datatype. The datatype of a plain literal with no language tag (also called a “simple literal”) has datatype xsd:string. A plain literal with a language tag has datatype rdf:langString.


"abc" and "abc"^^xsd:string are the same RDF term in RDF 1.1. Jena2 memory models have always treated these as the same value, but different terms. Jena2 persistent models treated them as two separate term and two separate values.

Data is not invalidated by this change.

  • The parsers will give datatypes to all data read, there is no need to change the data.

  • Output is in the datatype-less form (an abbreviated syntax) even in N-triples.

  • Applications which explicitly use ^^xsd:string (or in RDF/XML, rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string") will see a change in appearance.

  • Applications with a mix of plain literals and explicit ^^xsd:string (the RDF 1.1 Work Group believed these to be uncommon) may see changes.

  • Applications that do their own RDF output need to be careful to not assume that having datatype excludes the possibility of also having a language tag.

Persistent Data

For data stored in TDB and SDB, it is advisable to reload data.

Data that does not use explicit xsd:string should be safe but it is still recommended that data is reloaded at a convenient time.

Data that does use explicit xsd:string must be reloaded.

Security package renamed to Permissions

Jena Security has been renamed Jena Permissions and the Maven artifact id has been changed to jena-permissions to reflect this change.

Shim code that was introduced to map Jena classes to security classes has been removed. This change requires changes to SecurityEvaluator implementations. More details are available at the Permissions migration documentation.


  • GraphStore interface has been removed
  • ModelFactory.createFileModelMaker has been removed
  • LateBindingIterator has been removed: use LazyIterator instead
  • EarlyBindingIterator has been removed: no replacement
  • UniqueExtendedIterator has been removed: use ExtendedIterator with unique filter