TDB Datasets

An RDF Dataset is a collection of one, unnamed, default graph and zero, or more named graphs. In a SPARQL query, a query pattern is matched against the default graph unless the GRAPH keyword is applied to a pattern.

Dataset Storage

One file location (directory) is used to store one RDF dataset. The unnamed graph of the dataset is held as a single graph while all the named graphs are held in a collection of quad indexes.

Every dataset is obtained via TDBFactory.createDataset(Location) within a JVM is the same dataset. (If a model is obtained from via TDBFactory.createModel(Location) there is a hidden, shared dataset and the appropriate model is returned. The preferred style is to create the dataset, then get a model.)

Dataset Query

There is full support for SPARQL query over named graphs in a TDB-back dataset.

All the named graphs can be treated as a single graph which is the union (RDF merge) of all the named graphs. This is given the special graph name urn:x-arq:UnionGraph\ in a GRAPH pattern.

When querying the RDF merge of named graphs, the default graph in the store is not included. This feature applies to queries only. It does not affect the storage nor does it change loading.

Alternatively, if the symbol tdb:unionDefaultGraph (see TDB Configuration) is set, the unnamed graph for the query is the union of all the named graphs in the datasets. The stored default graph is ignored and is not part of the data of the union graph although it is accessible by the special name <urn:x-arq:DefaultGraph\> in a GRAPH pattern.

Set globally:

TDB.getContext().set(TDB.symUnionDefaultGraph, true) ;

or set on a per query basis:

try(QueryExecution qExec = QueryExecution.dataset(dataset)
        .build() ) {

Special Graph Names

URI Meaning
urn:x-arq:UnionGraph The RDF merge of all the named graphs in the datasets of the query.
urn:x-arq:DefaultGraph The default graph of the dataset, used when the default graph of the query is the union graph.

Note that setting tdb:unionDefaultGraph does not affect the default graph or default model obtained with dataset.getDefaultModel().

The RDF merge of all named graph can be accessed as the named graph urn:x-arq:UnionGraph using Dataset.getNamedModel("urn:x-arq:UnionGraph") .

Dataset Inferencing

Inferencing on a Model in a Dataset, using the TDB Java API, follows the same pattern as an in-memory InfModel. The use of TDB Transactions is strongly recommended to avoid data corruption.

  //Open TDB Dataset
  String directory = ...
  Dataset dataset = TDBFactory.createDataset(directory);

  //Retrieve Named Graph from Dataset, or use Default Graph.
  String graphURI = "";
  Model model = dataset.getNamedModel(graphURI);

  //Create RDFS Inference Model, or use other Reasoner e.g. OWL.
  InfModel infModel = ModelFactory.createRDFSModel(model);

  //Perform operations on infModel.