Apache Jena SPARQL APIs

Jump to the “Changes” section.


The SPARQL specifications provide query, update and the graph store protocol (GSP). In addition, Jena provided store operations for named graph formats.

For working with RDF data:

Model Graph
Statement Triple
Resource Node
Literal Node
String Var
Dataset DatasetGraph

and for SPARQL,

RDFConnection RDFLink
QueryExecution QueryExec
UpdateExecution UpdateExec
ResultSet RowSet
ModelStore GSP
ModelStore DSP

Jena provides a single interface, RDFConnection for working with local and remote RDF data using these protocols in a unified way. This is most useful for remote data because the setup to connect is more complicated and can be done once and reused.

HTTP authentication support is provided, supporting both basic and digest authentication in challenge-response scenarios. Most authentication setup is abstracted away from the particualr HTTP client library Jena is using.

Applications can also use the various execution engines through QueryExecution, UpdateExecution and ModelStore.

All the main implementations work at “Graph SPI” (GPI) level and an application may wish to work with this lower level interface that implements generalized RDF (i.e. a triple is any three nodes, including ones like variables, and subsystem extension nodes).

The GPI version is the main machinery working at the storage and network level, and the API version is an adapter to convert to the Model API and related classes.

UpdateProcessor is a legacy name for UpdateExecution

GSP provides the SPARQL Graph Store Protocol, and ‘DSP’ (Dataset Store Protocol) provides for sending and receiving datasets, rather than individual graphs.

Both API and GPI provide builders for detailed setup, particularly for remote usage over HTTP and HTTPS where detailed control of the HTTP requests is sometimes necessary to work with other triple stores.

Use of the builders is preferred to factories. Factory style functions for many common usage patterns are retained in QueryExecutionFactory, UpdateExecutionFactory. Note that any methods that involved Apache HttpClient objects have been removed.

Changes from Jena 4.2.0

Changes at Jena 4.3.0

  • Execution objects have a companion builder. This is especially important of HTTP as there many configuration options that may be needed. Local use is still covered by the existing QueryExecutionFactory as well as the new QueryExecutionBuilder.

  • HTTP usage provided by the JDK java.net.http package, with challenge-based authentication provided on top by Jena. See the authentiucation documentation.

  • Authentication support is uniformly applied to query, update, GSP, DSP and SERVICE.

  • HTTP/2 support

  • Remove Apache HttpClient usage

    • When using this for authentication, application code changes wil be necessary.
  • Deprecate modifying QueryExecution after it is built.

  • Substitution of variables for concrete values in query and update execution. This is a form of paramterization that works in both local and remnote usage (unlike “initial bindings” which are only available for local query execution). See the substitution section section below.

  • HttpOp, using java.net.http.HttpClient, is split into HttpRDF for GET/POST/PUT/DELETE of graphs and datasets and new HttpOp for packaged-up common patterns of HTTP usage.

  • The previous HttpOp is available as HttpOp1 and Apache HttpClient is still a dependency. Eventually, HttpOp and dependency on Apache HttpClient will be removed.

  • GSP - support for dataset operations as well as graphs (also supported by Fuseki).

  • DatasetAccessors removed - previously these were deprecated. GSP and ModelStore are the replacement for remote operations. RDFConnection and RDFLink provide APIs.

Changes at Jena 4.5.0

Separate the dataset operations from the graph operations.

  • GSP - SPARQL Graph Store Protocol

  • DSP - Dataset Store Protocol: HTTP GET, POST, PUT operations on the datatse, e.g. quad formats like TriG.


All query and update builders provide operations to use a query and substitute variables for concrete RDF terms in the execution.

Unlike “initial bindings” substitution is provided in query and update builders for both local and remote cases.

Substitution is always “replace variable with RDF term” in a query or update that is correct syntax. This means it does not apply to INSERT DATA or DELETE DATA but can be used with INSERT { ?s ?p ?o } WHERE {} and DELETE { ?s ?p ?o } WHERE {}.

Full example: ExQuerySubstitute_01.java.

    ResultSet resultSet1 = QueryExecution.dataset(dataset)
            .query(prefixes+"SELECT * { ?person foaf:name ?name }")
            .substitution("name", name1)

Substitution is to be preferred over “initial bindings” because it is clearly defined and applies to both query and update in both local and remote uses.

“Substitution” and “initial bindings” are similar but not identical.

See also

which provide different ways to build a query.



    try ( RDFConnection conn = RDFConnectionRemote.service(dataURL).build()) {
        conn.update("INSERT DATA{}");

or the less flexible:

    try ( RDFConnection conn = RDFConnection.connect(dataURL) ) {
        conn.update("INSERT DATA{}");

Query Execution

Builder Examples Builders are reusable and modifiable after a “build” operation.

Dataset dataset = ...
Query query = ...
try ( QueryExecution qExec = QueryExecution.create()
                                 .build() ) {
    ResultSet results = qExec.execSelect();
    ... use results ...

and remote calls:

try ( QueryExecution qExec = QueryExecutionHTTP.service("http://....")
                                 .build() ) {
    ResultSet results = qExec.execSelect();
    ... use results ...

Factory Examples

  Dataset dataset = ...
  Query query = ...
  try ( QueryExecution qExec = QueryExecutionFactory.create(query, dataset) ) {
       ResultSet results = qExec.execSelect();
       ... use results ...

More complex setup:

// JDK HttpClient
HttpClient httpClient = HttpClient.newBuilder()
                .connectTimeout(Duration.ofSeconds(10))  // Timeout to connect
try ( QueryExecution qExec = QueryExecutionHTTP.create()
                                 .service("http:// ....")
                                 .timeout(30, TimeUnit.SECONDS) // Timeout of request
                                 .build() ) {
    ResultSet results = qExec.execSelect();
    ... use results ...

There is only one timeout setting for eacho HTTP query execution. The “time to connect” is handled by the JDK HttpClient. Timeouts for local execution are “time to first result” and “time to all results” as before.

ModelStore and GSP

   Model model = ModelStore.service("http://fuseki/dataset").defaultGraph().GET();
   Graph graph = GSP.service("http://fuseki/dataset").defaultGraph().GET();
  Graph graph = ... ; 
  DatasetGraph dataset = GSP.request("http://fuseki/dataset").getDataset();


Old documentation - configuration, especially for authentication, has changed.

SERVICE configuration

See below for more on HTTP authentication with SERVICE.

The configuration of SERVICE operations has changed in Jena 4.3.0 and the parameter names have changed.

Symbol Java Constant Usage
arq:httpServiceAllowed ARQ.httpServiceAllowed False to disable
arq:httpQueryClient ARQ.httpQueryCient An java.net.http.HttpClient object
arq:httpServiceSendMode ARQ.httpServiceSendMode See Service documentation

where arq: is prefix for <http://jena.apache.org/ARQ#>.

The timeout is now only for the overall request and manged by the HTTP client code.

Compression of responses is not currently supported.

Customization of HTTP requests

There is a mechanism to modify HTTP requests to specific endpoints or to a collection of endpoints with the same prefix.

For example, to add a header X-Tracker to each request to a particular server:

    AtomicLong counter = new AtomicLong(0);

    HttpRequestModifier modifier = (params, headers)->{
        long x = counter.incrementAndGet();
        headers.put("X-Tracker", "Call="+x);
    // serverURL is the HTTP URL for the server or part of the server HTTP space.
    RegistryRequestModifier.get().addPrefix(serverURL, modifier);

The RegistryRequestModifier registry is checked on each HTTP operation. It maps URLs or prefix of URLs to a function of interface HttpRequestModifier which has access to the headers and the query string parameters of the request.


Documentation for authentication.